Standard

 

RAD 111 Radiologic Science

Course Description

Introduces the concepts of basic physics and emphasizes the fundamentals of X-ray generating equipment. Topics include: units of measure, physical principles, atomic structure, structure of matter, electrostatics, magnetism and electromagnetism, electrodynamics, and control of high voltage and rectification.

 

Competency Areas

Hours

 

Units of Measure

Class

5

Physical Principles

D. Lab

0

Atomic Structure

P. Lab/O.B.I.

0

Structure of Matter

Credit

5

Electrostatics

 

 

Magnetism and Electromagnetism

 

 

Electrodynamics

 

 

Control of High Voltage and Rectification

 

 

X-Ray Tubes   

 

 

X-Ray Circuits

 

 

Production and Characteristics of Radiation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prerequisite/ Corequisite:

MAT 103

 

Course Guide

 

Competency

After completing this section, the student will:

Hours

Class

D.Lab

P.Lab/

O.B.I.

UNITS OF MEASURE

2

0

0

English and metric system

Define the fundamental units of measurement used in the English measurement system.

 

 

 

 

Define the fundamental units of measurement used in the metric measurement system.

 

 

 

 

Compare the utility of English and metric measurement systems.

 

 

 

English/metric system conversion

Use conversion tables to convert metric measurements to their English equivalent.

 

 

 

 

Use conversion tables to convert English measurements to their metric equivalent

 

 

 

 

Use conversion formulas and constants to convert metric measurements to English measurements and English measurements to metric measurements.

 

 

 

PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES

2

0

0

Inertia and momentum

Define inertia and momentum.

 

 

 

 

Describe the general principles relating to inertia and momentum.

 

 

 

Energy and work

Define work.

 

 

 

 

Define kinetic and potential energy.

 

 

 

 

Describe the relationship between energy and work.

 

 

 

 

State the law of conservation of energy.

 

 

 

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

2

0

0

Bohr's theory

Describe Bohr's theory of the hydrogen atom.

 

 

 

Atomic structure

Describe the characteristics and functions of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

 

 

 

 

Describe the energy levels associated with a given atom.

 

 

 

Ionization

Explain the process of ionization.

 

 

 

Covalent and ionic bonding

Compare covalent and ionic bonding.

 

 

 

STRUCTURE OF MATTER

2

0

0

Elements

Define element.

 

 

 

 

Describe the characteristics of a given element using the periodic table.

 

 

 

Molecules and compounds

Describe the characteristics of a molecule.

Define compound.

 

 

 

ELECTROSTATICS

2

0

0

Terminology

Define electrical charge.

Define electrical field.

 

 

 

Electrification

Describe the source of electrical charges and electrical fields.

 

 

 

 

Explain methods of electrification.

 

 

 

Electrostatic laws

Explain the laws of electrostatics.

Describe applications of the laws of electrostatics.

 

 

 

MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM   

8

0

0

Magnetism

Discuss the properties of magnetism.

 

 

 

 

Discuss the laws of magnetism.

 

 

 

 

Explain the principle of magnetic induction.

 

 

 

Electromagnetism

Explain the interaction between electrical and magnetic fields.

 

 

 

 

Discuss types of electromagnetic induction.

 

 

 

 

Describe types and functions of generators, motors, transformers, and coils.

 

 

 

 

Compare single- and three-phase generators in terms of radiation production and efficiency.

 

 

 

ELECTRODYNAMICS

6

0

0

Terminology

Define the terms potential difference, current, and resistance.

 

 

 

Characteristics of alternating and direct current

Describe the characteristics of alternating and direct current.

 

 

 

Ohm's law

Solve direct current problems using Ohm's law.

 

 

 

Resistance circuits

Given a schematic diagram of a resistance circuit, label the component parts.

 

 

 

Electrical measurement and protective devices

Describe electrical measurement devices.

 

 

 

 

Given a schematic diagram, label the electrical measurement devices.

 

 

 

 

Describe electrical protective devices.

 

 

 

CONTROL OF HIGH VOLTAGE AND RECTIFICATION

7

0

0

High voltage

Identify mechanisms used to control high voltage.

 

 

 

 

Compute transformed voltages and amperages using appropriate formulas.

 

 

 

Rectification

Define rectification.

 

 

 

 

Explain the purpose of rectification.

 

 

 

 

Compare solid state and vacuum tube rectification in terms of function, advantages, and disadvantages.

 

 

 

X-RAY TUBES

6

0

0

Anodes and cathodes

Describe the characteristics of a rotating anode in terms of construction and function.

 

 

 

 

Describe the characteristics of a cathode in terms of construction and function.

 

 

 

Tube housing

Describe the construction and function of an X-ray tube housing.

 

 

 

Cables

Describe the construction and function of X-ray tube cables.

 

 

 

X-ray tube construction

Given an X-ray tube rating chart, determine the maximum time allowable exposure factor for various radiographic procedures.

 

 

 

 

Given simulated exposure factors, use an anode cooling chart to determine the rate of anode cooling.

 

 

 

 

Given simulated exposures and a housing cooling chart, determine the heat units accumulated (latent heat) and the cooling characteristics of the X-ray tube housing.

 

 

 

X-RAY CIRCUITS

5

0

0

Primary circuit

Describe the components of an X-ray primary circuit and explain the function of each component.

 

 

 

Secondary circuit

Describe the components of an X-ray secondary circuit in terms of the arrangement and function of each component.

 

 

 

Filament circuit

Describe the components of an X-ray filament circuit in terms of the arrangement and function of each component.

 

 

 

Compound circuit identification

Given a simple diagram of a complete X-ray circuit with missing components, complete the circuit and label the components.

 

 

 

PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIATION

8

0

0

Principles

State the principles of X-ray production.

 

 

 

 

Compare the production of Bremstrahlung (braking rays) with the production of characteristic X-rays.

 

 

 

 

Describe the conditions necessary to produce X-rays.

 

 

 

Photon interaction and disintegration

Discuss various photon interactions in terms of interaction description, relation to atomic number, and applications.

 

 

 

 

Define photon disintegration.

 

 

 

Beam penetration, absorption, and scatter

Discuss the relationships of wavelength and frequency in terms of beam penetration, absorption, and scatter.

 

 

 

Units of measure

Define the units of measure used to quantify radiation.

 

 

 

 

List examples of the radiological applications of radiation units of measure.

 

 

 

 

Suggested Resources

 

Books

 

Bushong, S. C. (1994). Radiologic science for technologists (5th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

Curry, T. S., et al. (1990). Christensen's physics of diagnostic radiology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

DeAngelis, R. V., & Edgar, M. (Year). Radiography workbook two. Marlboro, NJ: Health & Allied.

Selman, J. (1994). The fundamentals of x-ray and radium physics (8th ed.). Springfield, IL: C. C. Thomas.

Sprawls, P. (1990). Radiographic principles. Rockville, MD: Aspen.