Standard

 rev.11/26/03

BIO 194 - Anatomy and Physiology II

Course Description

Continues the study of the anatomy and physiology of the human body. Topics include: the reproductive system, the cardiovascular system, the blood and lymphatic systems, the nervous and sensory systems, the endocrine system, and the immune system. Laboratory experience supports classroom learning.

 

Competency Areas

Hours

 

The Reproductive System

Class

4

The Cardiovascular System

D. Lab

3

The Blood and Lymphatic Systems

P. Lab/O.B.I.

0

The Nervous and Sensory Systems

Credit

5

The Endocrine System

 

 

The Immune System

 

 

 

Prerequisite:

BIO 193

Corequisite:

 

 

Course Guide

 

Competency

After completing this section, the student will:

Hours

Class

D.Lab

P.Lab/

O.B.I.

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  

7

4

0

Functions

Explain the structure and functions of the reproductive organs, ducts, and glands of both males and females.

 

 

 

Female reproductive system

Discuss the principal events of the menstrual and ovarian cycles.

 

 

 

 

Explain the events that lead to conception.

 

 

 

Effects of aging

Discuss the effects of aging on reproduction.

 

 

 

Reproductive system disorders and disease

Explain the causes and symptoms of five sexually transmitted diseases.

 

 

 

 

Explain the causes and symptoms of five reproductive system disorders common to males and five disorders common to females.

 

 

 

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

7

6

0

The heart

Describe the structure and functions of the chambers, great vessel, and valves of the heart.

 

 

 

 

Explain the structural and functional features of the conduction system of the heart.

 

 

 

 

Describe the principal events of the cardiac cycle.

 

 

 

 

Contrast the sounds of the heart and their clinical significance.

 

 

 

 

List the risk factors involved in heart disease.

 

 

 

 

Describe coronary artery disease.

 

 

 

 

Define congestive heart failure.

 

 

 

Vessels and their routes

Contrast the structure and function of the various types of blood vessels.

 

 

 

 

Define pulse and blood pressure.

 

 

 

 

Contrast the clinical significance of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure.

 

 

 

 

Identify the principal arteries and veins of the systemic, pulmonary, and hepatic portal circulations.

 

 

 

 

Explain how the venous blood is returned to the heart.

 

 

 

 

Explain the effects of exercise and aging on the cardiovascular system.

 

 

 

Cardiovascular disease

List the causes and symptoms of shock, hypertension, aneurysms, coronary artery disease, and deep-venous thrombosis.

 

 

 

THE BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS

3

2

0

Components and functions

Discuss the function and physical characteristics of blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid.

 

 

 

 

List the components of plasma and their functions.

 

 

 

Clotting

Identify the stages involved in blood clotting.

 

 

 

Blood types

Explain the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems.

 

 

 

Blood diseases and disorders

Discuss the causes of five types of anemia.

 

 

 

 

Identify general clinical symptoms of the following blood disorders: infectious mononucleosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and leukemia.

 

 

 

THE NERVOUS AND SENSORY SYSTEMS

17

14

0

The nervous tissue classifications and functions

Identify the three basic functions of the nervous systems in maintaining homeostasis.

 

 

 

 

Classify the organs of the nervous system into central and peripheral divisions.

 

 

 

 

Contrast the histological characteristics and functions of neuroglia and neurons.

 

 

 

 

Define a synapse.

 

 

 

 

List the factors involved in the conduction of a nerve impulse across a synapse.

 

 

 

 

List the necessary conditions for the regeneration of nervous tissue.

 

 

 

The spinal cord

Define the structural groupings of the neural tissues.

 

 

 

 

Describe the protection, gross anatomical features, and the cross-sectional structure of the spinal cord

 

 

 

 

Describe the principal functions of the spinal cord.

 

 

 

 

Discuss the names, composition and coverings, and distribution of the spinal nerves.

 

 

 

 

Describe spinal cord injury.

 

 

 

 

List the immediate and long-range effects of spinal cord injury.

 

 

 

The brain

Identify the principal parts of the brain.

 

 

 

 

Describe how the brain is protected.

 

 

 

 

Explain the function of the cerebrospinal fluid.

 

 

 

 

Describe the blood supply to the brain and the blood-brain barrier.

 

 

 

 

Compare the structure and functions of the brain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and the cerebellum.

 

 

 

 

Define a cranial nerve.

 

 

 

 

Identify the twelve pairs of cranial nerves by name and number and function.

 

 

 

Neurological diseasesand disorders

List the major clinical symptoms of each of the following disorders of the nervous system: cerebrovascular accident, epilepsy, transient ischemic attack, brain tumors, poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, dyslexia, Tay-Sachs disease, headache, Reye's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and delirium.

 

 

 

Sensory, motor, and integrative systems

Define a sensation.

 

 

 

 

List the characteristics of a sensation.

 

 

 

 

Define the general sensations.

 

 

 

 

Trace the sensory and motor pathways of impulses received from selected receptors.

 

 

 

 

Compare integrative functions such as memory, wakefulness, and sleep.

 

 

 

Autonomic nervous system

Compare the structural and functional differences between the somatic efferent and autonomic portions of the nervous system.

 

 

 

 

Explain the relationship between biofeedback and meditation and the autonomic nervous system.

 

 

 

Special senses

Discuss olfactory sensations and receptors.

 

 

 

 

Discuss Gustatory sensations and receptors.

 

 

 

 

List the accessory structures of the eye.

 

 

 

 

Explain the structure of the eyeball.

 

 

 

 

List the major structures of the auditory and equilibrium system.

 

 

 

 

List a major disorder for each of the above structural systems.

 

 

 

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM         

3

2

0

Functions

Discuss the functions of the endocrine system in maintaining homeostasis.

 

 

 

Endocrine hormones

Describe the location, hormones, and functions of the following endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal, and thymus.

 

 

 

Endocrine disorders

Describe one disorder for each of the above glands.

 

 

 

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

3

2

0

Components and functions

Describe the components of the lymphatic system and their functions.

 

 

 

Resistance

Describe how edema develops.

 

 

 

 

Discuss nonspecific resistance to disease.

 

 

 

 

Discuss specific resistance to disease.

 

 

 

Immune system diseases and disorders

Describe the clinical symptoms of the following disorders: acquired immune deficiency syndrome, autoimmune diseases, severe combined immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity, tissue rejection, and Hodgkin's disease.

 

 

 

 

Suggested Resources

 

Books

 

Tortora, G. J. (1989). Principles of human anatomy (5th ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

Tortora, G. J. (1990). Principles of anatomy and physiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Harper & Row.