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BIO 2113– Anatomy and Physiology I

Introduces the anatomy and physiology of the human body.  Emphasis is placed on the development of a systemic perspective of anatomical structures and physiological processes. Topics include: body organization; cell structure and functions; tissue classifications; the integumentary system; the skeletal system; the muscular system; the nervous and sensory systems. Laboratory experience supports classroom learning.


Competency Areas


Body Organization



Cell Structure and Functions

D. Lab


Tissue Classifications

P. Lab


The Integumentary System



The Skeletal System



The Muscular System



The Nervous and Sensory Systems





Program admissions


ENG 1101


Course Guide



After completing this section, the student will be able to:










Body Organization




Organization of the body




Define the terms anatomy and physiology.




Describe the basic biological functions necessary for survival.




Define anatomical position.




Identify descriptive body terms, planes, abdominopelvic regions and quadrants, directional terms as they relate to anatomical position, body membranes and cavities.




Discuss complementarity between structure and function.




Describe the various organizational levels of the human body.




Define homeostasis and metabolism.




Define positive and negative feedback cycles and provide examples of each.




Cell Structure and Functions




Chemical basis of life




Describe basic atomic structure.




Define the terms molecule, element, compound, mixture, solution, solvent and solute and give examples of each.




Describe and give examples of covalent (non polar and polar), ionic and hydrogen bonding.




Describe water as an inorganic compound and universal solvent.




List the major elements present in the body.




Discuss and give examples of the most important carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids found in the body and relate these substances to specific body structures or functions.




Describe pH scale, acids and bases.




Tissue Classifications




Tissue types

Define the term tissue and histology.






Tissue functions


Identify the four major types of tissue in the body and their basic functions. 




Describe the structure, function, and location of epithelial tissues in the body.




Describe the structure, function, and location of connective tissues in the body and contrast these to epithelial tissues.




Compare and contrast the three forms of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth and cardiac.




Describe the structure, function, and location of nervous tissue in the body.




Classify the membranes of the body with examples of each.




Describe the basic steps in tissue repair.




The Integumentary System




Skin components and functions


Discuss the functions of the skin as an organ system and its role in the homeostasis of body temperature.




Describe the layers, structural components, and functions of the epidermis dermis and hypodermis.




 Describe the basic structure and function of epidermal derivatives such as hair, nails, sweat, sebaceous and ceruminous glands.




Disease and trauma


Discuss the classification of burns by degree and surface areas involved.




Discuss the three principal types of skin cancer and differentiate among them.




The Skeletal System




Skeletal system components and functions




Discuss the components and functions of the skeletal system.




Discuss the basic anatomy of long and flat bones.




Describe the histological features of compact and spongy bone tissue.




Compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification.




Define interstitial and appositional bone growth.




Describe the process of bone remodeling and fracture repair.




Bone characteristics




Classify the principle types of bones on the basis of shape and location.




Describe the various markings on the surface of bones.




Identify the bones and principal markings of the bones of the axial skeleton.




Identify the bones and principal markings of the bones of the appendicular skeleton.




Skeletal articulation



Define an articulation and identify the factors that determine the types and degree of movement at a joint.




Classify joints based on their structure and function using proper terminology. 




Describe the major movements allowed by synovial joints.




Describe selected articulations of the body with respect to the bones that enter into their formation, structural classification, and anatomical components.




Bone diseases, disorders, and injury

Discuss selected bone diseases and common fractures.




The Muscular System




Muscle types and functions





List the characteristics and functions of muscle tissue.




Discuss the organization of muscle tissue and its components.




Discuss the anatomy of the muscle (cell) fiber and the microscopic anatomy of the muscle cell including the sarcomere as the basic unit of muscle contraction.




Discuss the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction.




Discuss the structure and function of the neuromuscular junction.




Describe the movement of the action potential in skeletal muscle.




Describe the ATP needs and the energy sources used by skeletal muscle.




Explain concepts in muscle physiology such as twitch, motor unit, tetanus, as well types of muscle fibers and muscle contractions. 




Define origin and insertion.




Describe the relationship between bones and skeletal muscles in producing body movements.




Discuss most body movements as activities of groups of muscles by explaining the roles of the prime movers, synergist, antagonist and fixator.




Define the criteria employed in naming skeletal muscles.




Identify the principal skeletal muscles in selected regions of the body and their functions.




Muscular diseases

Discuss selected muscle disorders.




The Nervous and Sensory Systems




The nervous tissue classifications and functions



Identify the basic functions of the nervous system in maintaining homeostasis.




Describe the components of the central and peripheral divisions. 




Describe the structure of a neuron. 




Identify the major supporting cells of neurons in the CNS and PNS.




Compare and contrast structural and functional classifications of neurons.




Define a synapse and describe all of the events that occur at the synapse.




Describe the action potential, its generation, and transmission of the action potential in the neuron.




Discuss concepts in neurophysiology such as EPSP, IPSP, summation, all-or-none law, and neuron regeneration.




Discuss common neurotransmitters. 




The spinal cord


Describe the layers of meninges and longitudinal anatomy of the spinal cord.




Describe cross sectional anatomy of the spinal cord including the location of sensory and motor neurons.




Identify major sensory and motor tracts in the spinal cord.




 Describe the basic components of a reflex arc and discuss the patellar, Golgi tendon, stretch, and withdrawal reflexes.




Identify the major plexuses in the spinal cord as well as major spinal nerves and their functions.




Discuss the immediate and long-range effects of spinal cord injury.




The brain



Identify the principal parts of the brain.




Explain the function of the cerebrospinal fluid, its composition, and the pathway of CSF flow.




Describe the blood supply to the brain and the blood-brain barrier.




Identify the major structural and functional areas of the cerebral cortex and cerebrum including the basal nuclei.




Identify the parts of the diencephalon and explain their roles in homeostasis.




Identify the three major components of the brain stem, their substructures and their functions.




Discuss the structure and function of the cerebellum.




Neurological diseases and disorders

Discuss common disorders of the central nervous system.




Peripheral Nervous System

Identify the twelve pairs of cranial nerves by name, number, function and classify as sensory, motor or mixed.




 Identify the major nerves of the brachial plexus.




Identify the major nerves of the lumbosacral plexus.




 Describe exteroceptors, interoceptors, and proprioceptors.





Autonomic nervous system

Compare the structural and functional differences between the somatic efferent and autonomic portions of the nervous system.




 Compare and contrast the structure and function of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems and their specific effects on end organs.




Discuss acetylcholine (cholinergic)and norepinephrine (adrenergic) as the major neurotransmitters in the ANS.




Special senses

Discuss olfactory sensations and receptors.




Discuss gustatory sensations and receptors.




Describe external and internal anatomy of the eye.




Discuss the visual pathway and common errors of refraction.




List the major structures and functions of the external ear, middle ear and internal ear.




Discuss selected disorders of the special senses.





Suggested Resources





Title: Subtitle






Marieb, Elaine


Human anatomy and physiology.

7th ed.

San Francisco

Benjamin Cummings


Marieb, Elaine


Laboratory manual for anatomy and physiology.

9th ed.

Sand Francisco

Benjamin Cummings


Martin, Terry


Human anatomy and physiology, laboratory manual.

10th ed.

New York



Martini, Frederic H


Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology.

7th ed.

San Francisco

Benjamin Cummings


Saladin, Ken


Anatomy and physiology: The unity of form and function.

4th ed.

New York



Seeley, Stephens, & Tate


Anatomy and physiology.

8th ed.

New York



Shier, David, et al.


Hole’s human anatomy and physiology.

11th ed.

New York



Thibodeau, Gary A. & Patton, Kevin T


Anatomy and physiology.

6th ed.


Elsevier: Mosby


Tortora, G.J. & Dickerson, Bryan


Principles of anatomy and physiology.

11th ed.

New Jersey

Wiley and Sons



Posted: 10/01/08