Standard

updated: 01/16/04

CTD 102- Basic Operation and Range Work

Course Description

This course focuses on familiarizing students with truck instruments and controls and on performing basic maneuvers required to drive safely in a controlled environment and on the Driving Range.   Each  student must receive at least twelve (12) hours behind-the-wheel (BTW) instructional time in range operations- operating a tractor trailer through clearance maneuvers, backing, turning, parallel parking, and coupling & uncoupling.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

Competency Areas

Hours

 

Introducing Vehicle Instruments and Controls

Class

3

Operating a Tractor Trailer Through Clearance Maneuvers

D. Lab

2

Turning, Parking, and Backing & Docking

P. Lab/O.B.I.

3

Coupling and Uncoupling a Unit

Credit

5

 

Prerequisite:

 

Corequisite:

CTD 101

 

Course Guide

 

Competency

After completing this section, the student will:

Hours

Class

D.Lab

P.Lab/

O.B.I.

INTRODUCING VEHICLE INSTRUMENTS AND CONTROLS

7

0

0

Engine Controls   

Identify and state the function of engine controls.

 

 

 

Primary Vehicle Controls

Identify and state the function of controls related to vehicle movement.

 

 

 

Secondary Vehicle Controls

Identify and state the function of controls not related to vehicle movement.

 

 

 

Instruments

State the purpose and identify the acceptable operating range of vehicle instruments.

 

 

 

Communication Skills

Understand universally accepted signals.

 

 

 

 

Explain law and regulations concerning traffic signals.

 

 

 

 

Understand relationship of signals to intent and that signals do no convey the “right” to execute a maneuver.

 

 

 

 

Signal intentions for lane change, hazards, and backing up.

 

 

 

 

Use horn and headlights appropriately.

 

 

 

 

Establish and use eye contact with drivers and pedestrians as a warning.

 

 

 

 

Avoid making decisions only on basis of another’s signal.

 

 

 

 

Understand how to use on-board communication devices.  To extent possible, operate devices when vehicle is not in motion.

 

 

 

 

Explain and use procedure for handling complaints.

 

 

 

 

Understand how to respond to an on-board message.

 

 

 

 

Understand how to listen and respond effectively.

 

 

 

Basic Control

Define the space requirements for any length trailer.

 

 

 

 

Understand clearance requirements of rig for all dimensions.

 

 

 

 

Explain the purpose, use, and consequences of engine retarders.

 

 

 

 

Explain modulation procedure for air brakes.

 

 

 

 

Explain steering techniques to track vehicle in lane and drive a straight line.

 

 

 

 

Explain the purpose and use of the Power Divider Interlock (P.D.L.) 

 

 

 

 

Illustrate the proper position to begin a turn and how to set-up, execute, and recover from a turn.

 

 

 

 

Describe the consequences of excessive idling.

 

 

 

 

Understand air dump valve operation.

 

 

 

 

Explain proper hand placement on steering wheel.

 

 

 

 

State how to apply ABS and non-ABS brakes.

 

 

 

OPERATING A TRACTOR TRAILER THROUGH CLEARANCE MANEUVERS

11

10

15

Moving and stopping vehicle

Start, warm up, and shut down the engine according to manufacturer’s specifications.

 

 

 

 

Ensure that air tanks have full pressure.

 

 

 

 

Test all brakes.

 

 

 

 

Engage clutch.

 

 

 

 

Shift transmission to lowest forward gear.

 

 

 

 

Start vehicle in motion.

 

 

 

 

Slow the vehicle with engine brake.

 

 

 

 

Stop the vehicle (brake).

 

 

 

Shifting

Read instruments and controls necessary to shift gears.

 

 

 

 

Shift up and down through all gears of conventional transmissions.

 

 

 

 

Understand shifting procedures and patterns for different transmissions.

 

 

 

 

Select proper gear for speed and highway conditions.

 

 

 

 

Explain gears that will be the best choice under certain traffic, turns, highway, and terrain conditions.

 

 

 

 

Explain outcomes of proper shifting in terms of improved fuel mileage, reduced operating costs, and other benefits.

 

 

 

 

Understand the importance of matching rpm and mph for down shifting.

 

 

 

 

Shift up and down through all gears of multi-speed and dual range transmissions.

 

 

 

 

Double clutch and time shift for smooth and fuel efficient performance.

 

 

 

 

Understand how to avoid riding the clutch.

 

 

 

 

Demonstrate progressive shifting techniques.

 

 

 

 

Demonstrate and explain skip shifting.

 

 

 

 

Demonstrate proper gear recovery.

 

 

 

 

Recognize common shifting errors and their consequences.

 

 

 

Skid Control/Recovery

Explain how to maintain directional control while operating over a slippery surface.

 

 

 

 

Explain how to bring a tractor-trailer to a stop in the shortest possible distance while maintaining directional control when operating on a slippery surface.

 

 

 

 

Explain how to recover from tractor or trailer skids induced by snow, ice, water, oil, sand, wet leaves, or other slippery surfaces.

 

 

 

 

Understand the best prevention for skidding is to control driving by reducing speed.

 

 

 

 

Understand the role of skid control in preventing accidents.

 

 

 

 

Understand skid dynamics, including friction, wheel load, and force.

 

 

 

 

Explain causes of skidding.

 

 

 

 

Explain the characteristics of a trailer jackknife, front wheel skids, and all wheel skids.

 

 

 

 

Explain the procedures for handling brake failure and blowouts.

 

 

 

 

Understand that skids may occur at any speed and identify skid recovery procedure.

 

 

 

TURNING, PARKING, AND BACKING & DOCKING

10

9

15

Turning

Execute left turns.

 

 

 

 

Execute right turns.

 

 

 

Parking

Park vehicle in a parallel space.

 

 

 

 

Park vehicle in a diagonal parking space.

 

 

 

Backing/Docking

Explain proper mirror adjustment and use.

 

 

 

 

Check dock area for obstructions, position, and paths.

 

 

 

 

Activate warning flashers prior to using reverse.

 

 

 

 

Tap horn periodically if no back-up alarm is available.

 

 

 

 

Judge path and clearances of trailer.

 

 

 

 

Understand rules and procedures for backing in and across traffic.

 

 

 

 

Explain procedures for backing, jack and chase, parallel and jackknife parking.

 

 

 

 

Identify and explain hazards of backing and specific dangers and problems in various situations.

 

 

 

 

Explain the principles of reverse steering.

 

 

 

 

Execute reverse steering of an articulated vehicle.

 

 

 

 

Explain hazards associated with backing.

 

 

 

 

Explain why the “best” backing is finding a way not to back.

 

 

 

 

Position vehicle correctly before beginning a backing/docking maneuver.

 

 

 

 

Back in straight and curved lines, using idle speed.

 

 

 

 

Back into a restricted space.

 

 

 

 

Park trailer in a jackknife and parallel positions.

 

 

 

 

Parallel park rig.

 

 

 

 

Back into a parking space using a 90 degree turn.

 

 

 

 

Back into a parking space from a straight approach.

 

 

 

 

Perform the serpentine backing maneuver.

 

 

 

COUPLING AND UNCOUPLING UNIT

2

1

0

Coupling

Describe the basic steps involved in coupling units.

 

 

 

 

Secure trailer against movement, if applicable.

 

 

 

 

Identify safety hazards.

 

 

 

 

Couple tractor to trailer.

 

 

 

 

Understand the importance of confirming trailer number.

 

 

 

 

Explain how to adjust mirrors for optimal vision field to achieve proper alignment and position.

 

 

 

 

Explain components and function of fifth wheel, trailer apron, kingpin, and safety lock.

 

 

 

 

Back trailer into trailer kingpin if appropriate, at right level, and with appropriate force.

 

 

 

 

Explain coupling test procedures.

 

 

 

 

Describe position, components, and function of air and electrical lines.

 

 

 

 

Understand that accidents caused by improper coupling are preventable.

 

 

 

 

Explain connection procedures.

 

 

 

 

Connect and check air and electrical lines.

 

 

 

 

Retract and secure landing gear handle.

 

 

 

 

Set in-cab air brake controls.

 

 

 

 

Understand the importance of trailer inspection prior to driving.

 

 

 

 

Describe signs of improper or incomplete connections.

 

 

 

 

Describe surface conditions and characteristics necessary to support weight.

 

 

 

Uncoupling

Describe the basic steps involved in uncoupling units.

 

 

 

 

Disconnect air and electrical units prior to uncoupling.

 

 

 

 

Lower gear to raise trailer to correct height and check support.

 

 

 

 

Identify safety hazards.

 

 

 

 

Uncouple tractor from trailer.

 

 

 

 

Suggested Resources

 

Bumper to Bumper.  4rd edition. (2003).  Corpus Christi, Texas:  Mike Byrnes and Associates, Inc.   

Federal Motor Carrier Regulations Pocketbook, Parts 383, 390-399.  Neenah, Wisconsin:  J.J. Keller & Associates, Inc.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. (1986).  Driver’s Daily Log.   Neenah, Wisconsin:  J.J. Keller & Associates, Inc.